Course Learning Outcome
On the completion of the course, students should have acquired the ability to:
1. Identify research problems;
2. Plan and implement research plans;
3. Analyse and interpret the obtained information; and
4. Produce learned research reports that provide appropriate solutions to the problems
Nature of scientific enquiry, concepts of causation, literature review and the research question. Conceptualization and measurement; data collection instruments, validity, research study designs, threats to validity; selection of study subjects and size. Planning for data collection, management and analysis. Research ethics; research proposal and management; characteristics of empirical research, statistical data analysis. Interpretation of research results, report writing and presentation. Evaluation of research performance. Research methods in Agroforestry: Field experimentation and On-Farm research: Considerations for experimental designs/sampling procedures; randomisation, replication and blocking/local controls; data collection procedures; statistical analyses (e.g. bivariate and multivariate analysis and analysis of variance); uniformity trials (e.g. plot size, shape, and guard areas for different types of experiments (sole crops, mixed crops, agroforestry trials)), evaluation of mixed crop systems - LER _ its uses and limitations, variants of LER (RYT, ATER RIR etc), indices of competition, variability, missing plot technique, transformation, interpretation and results dissemination
1. J.B. Raintree (1987). D & User’s Manual: An introduction to Agroforestry Diagnosis
and Design. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya. Pp 110.
2. Marcelino Avilla & Susana Minae (1991). Diagnosis and Design (D & D)
Methodology. Agroforestry today (July-September 1991), Vol.3, No. 3
1. P.J. Wood and J. Burley (1991). A Tree for All Reasons: the introduction and
evaluation of multipurpose trees for agroforestry. Publisher. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya
2. G. Schroth and F.L. Sinclair (2003). Trees, Crops and Soil Fertility: Concepts and
Research Methods. CABI Publishing. ISBN: 0851995934.